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They adopt polymeric structures in which Ti is surrounded by six oxide ligands that link to other Ti centers. The term titanates usually refers to titanium IV compounds, as represented by barium titanate BaTiO 3. With a perovskite structure, this material exhibits piezoelectric properties and is used as a transducer in the interconversion of sound and electricity.
Star sapphires and rubies get their asterism star-forming shine from the presence of titanium dioxide impurities. A variety of reduced oxides of titanium are known. Ti 3 O 5 , described as a Ti IV -Ti III species, is a purple semiconductor produced by reduction of TiO 2 with hydrogen at high temperatures,  and is used industrially when surfaces need to be vapour-coated with titanium dioxide: The alkoxides of titanium IV , prepared by reacting TiCl 4 with alcohols, are colourless compounds that convert to the dioxide on reaction with water.
They are industrially useful for depositing solid TiO 2 via the sol-gel process. Titanium isopropoxide is used in the synthesis of chiral organic compounds via the Sharpless epoxidation. Titanium forms a variety of sulfides, but only TiS 2 has attracted significant interest. It adopts a layered structure and was used as a cathode in the development of lithium batteries. Because Ti IV is a "hard cation" , the sulfides of titanium are unstable and tend to hydrolyze to the oxide with release of hydrogen sulfide.
Titanium tetrachloride titanium IV chloride, TiCl 4  is a colorless volatile liquid commercial samples are yellowish that, in air, hydrolyzes with spectacular emission of white clouds. Via the Kroll process , TiCl 4 is produced in the conversion of titanium ores to titanium dioxide, e. A notable example is titanium III chloride TiCl 3 , which is used as a catalyst for production of polyolefins see Ziegler-Natta catalyst and a reducing agent in organic chemistry.
Owing to the important role of titanium compounds as polymerization catalyst, compounds with Ti-C bonds have been intensively studied.
The most common organotitanium complex is titanocene dichloride C 5 H 5 2 TiCl 2. Related compounds include Tebbe's reagent and Petasis reagent. Titanium forms carbonyl complexes , e. Following the success of platinum-based chemotherapy, titanium IV complexes were among the first non-platinum compounds to be tested for cancer treatment. The advantage of titanium compounds lies in their high efficacy and low toxicity.
In biological environments, hydrolysis leads to the safe and inert titanium dioxide. Despite these advantages the first candidate compounds failed clinical trials. Further development resulted in the creation of potentially effective, selective, and stable titanium-based drugs. Titanium was discovered in by the clergyman and amateur geologist, William Gregor , as an inclusion of a mineral in Cornwall , Great Britain.
The currently known processes for extracting titanium from its various ores are laborious and costly; it is not possible to reduce the ore by heating with carbon as in iron smelting because titanium combines with the carbon to produce titanium carbide.
Titanium of very high purity was made in small quantities when Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered the iodide, or crystal bar , process in , by reacting with iodine and decomposing the formed vapours over a hot filament to pure metal.
In the s and s, the Soviet Union pioneered the use of titanium in military and submarine applications  Alfa class and Mike class  as part of programs related to the Cold War.
Recognizing the strategic importance of titanium,  the U. Department of Defense supported early efforts of commercialization. Throughout the period of the Cold War, titanium was considered a strategic material by the U. In , the U. Under heat and pressure, the powder can be used to create strong, lightweight items ranging from armour plating to components for the aerospace, transport, and chemical processing industries.
The processing of titanium metal occurs in four major steps: Because it cannot be readily produced by reduction of its dioxide,  titanium metal is obtained by reduction of TiCl 4 with magnesium metal in the Kroll process.
The complexity of this batch production in the Kroll process explains the relatively high market value of titanium,  despite the Kroll process being less expensive than the Hunter process. In this process, the chlorine gas is passed over a red-hot mixture of rutile or ilmenite in the presence of carbon. A more recently developed batch production method, the FFC Cambridge process,  consumes titanium dioxide powder a refined form of rutile as feedstock and produces titanium metal, either powder or sponge.
The process involves fewer steps than the Kroll process and takes less time. Common titanium alloys are made by reduction. For example, cuprotitanium rutile with copper added is reduced , ferrocarbon titanium ilmenite reduced with coke in an electric furnace , and manganotitanium rutile with manganese or manganese oxides are reduced. About fifty grades of titanium and titanium alloys are designed and currently used, although only a couple of dozen are readily available commercially.
Those four vary in tensile strength as a function of oxygen content, with grade 1 being the most ductile lowest tensile strength with an oxygen content of 0. Titanium powder is manufactured using a flow production process known as the Armstrong process  that is similar to the batch production Hunter process.
A stream of titanium tetrachloride gas is added to a stream of molten sodium metal; the products sodium chloride salt and titanium particles is filtered from the extra sodium. Titanium is then separated from the salt by water washing. Both sodium and chlorine are recycled to produce and process more titanium tetrachloride.
All welding of titanium must be done in an inert atmosphere of argon or helium to shield it from contamination with atmospheric gases oxygen, nitrogen , and hydrogen.
Commercially pure flat product sheet, plate can be formed readily, but processing must take into account the fact that the metal has a "memory" and tends to spring back. This is especially true of certain high-strength alloys. Titanium is used in steel as an alloying element ferro-titanium to reduce grain size and as a deoxidizer, and in stainless steel to reduce carbon content. Powdered titanium is used in pyrotechnics as a source of bright-burning particles.
TiO 2 powder is chemically inert, resists fading in sunlight, and is very opaque: Because titanium alloys have high tensile strength to density ratio,  high corrosion resistance ,  fatigue resistance, high crack resistance,  and ability to withstand moderately high temperatures without creeping , they are used in aircraft, armour plating, naval ships, spacecraft, and missiles.
In fact, about two thirds of all titanium metal produced is used in aircraft engines and frames. The Lockheed A and its development the SR "Blackbird" were two of the first aircraft frames where titanium was used, paving the way for much wider use in modern military and commercial aircraft. An estimated 59 metric tons , pounds are used in the Boeing , 45 in the Boeing , 18 in the Boeing , 32 in the Airbus A , 18 in the Airbus A , and 12 in the Airbus A The Airbus A may use 77 metric tons, including about 11 tons in the engines.
An early use in jet engines was for the Orenda Iroquois in the s. Because titanium is resistant to corrosion by sea water, it is used to make propeller shafts, rigging, and heat exchangers in desalination plants ;  heater-chillers for salt water aquariums, fishing line and leader, and divers' knives.
Titanium is used in the housings and components of ocean-deployed surveillance and monitoring devices for science and the military. The former Soviet Union developed techniques for making submarines with hulls of titanium alloys  forging titanium in huge vacuum tubes. Titanium is used in the walls of the Juno spacecraft's vault to shield on-board electronics.
Welded titanium pipe and process equipment heat exchangers, tanks, process vessels, valves are used in the chemical and petrochemical industries primarily for corrosion resistance. Specific alloys are used in oil and gas downhole applications and nickel hydrometallurgy for their high strength e. The pulp and paper industry uses titanium in process equipment exposed to corrosive media, such as sodium hypochlorite or wet chlorine gas in the bleachery.
Titanium tetrachloride TiCl 4 , a colorless liquid, is important as an intermediate in the process of making TiO 2 and is also used to produce the Ziegler—Natta catalyst. Titanium tetrachloride is also used to iridize glass and, because it fumes strongly in moist air, it is used to make smoke screens. Titanium metal is used in automotive applications, particularly in automobile and motorcycle racing where low weight and high strength and rigidity are critical.
Titanium is used in many sporting goods: Although not a mainstream material for bicycle production, titanium bikes have been used by racing teams and adventure cyclists. Titanium alloys are used in spectacle frames that are rather expensive but highly durable, long lasting, light weight, and cause no skin allergies. Many backpackers use titanium equipment, including cookware, eating utensils, lanterns, and tent stakes. Though slightly more expensive than traditional steel or aluminium alternatives, titanium products can be significantly lighter without compromising strength.
Titanium horseshoes are preferred to steel by farriers because they are lighter and more durable. Titanium has occasionally been used in architecture. Hamilton Building in Denver, Colorado. Because of titanium's superior strength and light weight relative to other metals steel, stainless steel, and aluminium , and because of recent advances in metalworking techniques, its use has become more widespread in the manufacture of firearms.
Primary uses include pistol frames and revolver cylinders. For the same reasons, it is used in the body of laptop computers for example, in Apple 's PowerBook line. Some upmarket lightweight and corrosion-resistant tools, such as shovels and flashlights, are made of titanium or titanium alloys. Because of its durability, titanium has become more popular for designer jewelry particularly, titanium rings.
The resulting alloy is roughly the hardness of carat gold and is more durable than pure carat gold. Titanium's durability, light weight, and dent and corrosion resistance make it useful for watch cases. Titanium may be anodized to vary the thickness of the surface oxide layer, causing optical interference fringes and a variety of bright colors. Titanium has a minor use in dedicated non-circulating coins and medals. In , Gibraltar released world's first titanium coin for the millennium celebration.
Because titanium is biocompatible non-toxic and not rejected by the body , it has many medical uses, including surgical implements and implants, such as hip balls and sockets joint replacement and dental implants that can stay in place for up to 20 years. Titanium has the inherent ability to osseointegrate , enabling use in dental implants that can last for over 30 years.
This property is also useful for orthopedic implant applications. As a result, skeletal loads are more evenly shared between bone and implant, leading to a lower incidence of bone degradation due to stress shielding and periprosthetic bone fractures, which occur at the boundaries of orthopedic implants.
However, titanium alloys' stiffness is still more than twice that of bone, so adjacent bone bears a greatly reduced load and may deteriorate. Because titanium is non- ferromagnetic , patients with titanium implants can be safely examined with magnetic resonance imaging convenient for long-term implants.
Preparing titanium for implantation in the body involves subjecting it to a high-temperature plasma arc which removes the surface atoms, exposing fresh titanium that is instantly oxidized. Titanium is used for the surgical instruments used in image-guided surgery , as well as wheelchairs, crutches, and any other products where high strength and low weight are desirable.
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are widely used in electronics and the delivery of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Because of it is corrosion resistance, containers made of titanium have been studied for the long-term storage of nuclear waste. Containers lasting more than , years are thought possible with manufacturing conditions that minimize material defects.
The fungal species Marasmius oreades and Hypholoma capnoides can bioconvert titanium in titanium polluted soils. Titanium is non-toxic even in large doses and does not play any natural role inside the human body. One study indicates a possible connection between titanium and yellow nail syndrome. This may explain why most plants contain about 1 part per million ppm of titanium, food plants have about 2 ppm, and horsetail and nettle contain up to 80 ppm. As a powder or in the form of metal shavings, titanium metal poses a significant fire hazard and, when heated in air , an explosion hazard.
When used in the production or handling of chlorine , titanium should not be exposed to dry chlorine gas because it may result in a titanium—chlorine fire. Titanium can catch fire when a fresh, non-oxidized surface comes in contact with liquid oxygen.
This poses a limitation to its use in liquid oxygen systems, such as those in the aerospace industry. Because titanium tubing impurities can cause fires when exposed to oxygen, titanium is prohibited in gaseous oxygen respiration systems.
Steel tubing is used for high pressure systems 3, p. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Titanium disambiguation.
Pure and Applied Chemistry. Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. Retrieved 29 December A Reference Guide 2nd ed. Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed. Archived from the original on 18 November Retrieved 26 December Guide to the Elements Revised ed.