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I wonder if these guys had gone through puberty? Therefore, we suggest that hCG treatment may have a beneficial effect on gonadal function in patients with a small testicular volume and on penile growth in patients presenting with micropenis. Please reply with more information and follow-up questions. It is well known that micropenis results from a lack of adequate androgen action during early fetal life that hinders full masculinization of the external genitalia and induces inadequate androgen stimulation for normal penile growth. The hCG stimulation test was performed in all patients to exclude primary testicular insufficiency.

INTRODUCTION

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It is well known that micropenis results from a lack of adequate androgen action during early fetal life that hinders full masculinization of the external genitalia and induces inadequate androgen stimulation for normal penile growth. Among the suggested etiologic factors of micropenis, the most common cause of micropenis is failure of the hypothalamus to secrete gonadotropins or hypophysial dysfunction. In cases of idiopathic IHH combined with micropenis, hCG alone has been reported to increase penile length.

Additionally, the final testicular volumes in patients with IHH treated with hCG are substantially greater than in patients treated with testosterone. They showed that the serum level of testosterone, positive sperm count, and testicular volume were increased significantly in the gonadotropin-injected group.

Burris et al 12 investigated the effect of exogenous hCG alone in IHH men in terms of serum testosterone, spermatogenesis, and testicular growth.

They reported that hCG treatment increased the testicular volume from 5. During hCG treatment, 14 of the 22 men had positive sperm appearance in their semen. Ley and Leonard 13 also reported that hCG treatment is sufficient to both initiate and maintain spermatogenesis.

Although the studies mentioned above reported the effect of gonadotropin therapy in males with IHH, all studied heterogeneous groups of males with complete or partial gonadotropin deficiency, which may be one reason for the good response to the hCG treatment. The spectrum of gonadotropin deficiency is manifested by the men's initial testis volume.

Therefore, we suggest that hCG treatment may have a beneficial effect on gonadal function in patients with a small testicular volume and on penile growth in patients presenting with micropenis. A limitation of our study is that we could not measure semen parameters before and after surgery, because most of our patients were of an adolescent age and did not agree to provide a semen sample. Another limitation is the small sample size and the absence of a control group treated with combined human menopausal gonadotropin hMG or testosterone.

The appropriate timing and dosage of hCG therapy and its mode of action has not been conclusively determined, and controversy currently exists in the literature. Furthermore, our study population was mixed with both adolescent and adult patients, and we could not evaluate the outcomes separately for these different age groups of prepubertal and postpubertal patients.

It is uncertain whether the initial gain in penile length will be maintained into adulthood. Further study is needed with a prospective design, large sample size, long-term follow-up in terms of penile growth, and a control group of patients with another treatment modality.

In conclusion, hCG treatment seemed to be effective in IHH, because it successfully increased the serum testosterone level and testicular volume and stimulated penile growth. Our data also imply that hCG treatment for patients with IHH presenting with micropenis results in a satisfactory gain in penile length.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Chonnam Med J v. Published online Apr Find articles by Sun-Ouck Kim. Find articles by Kwang Ho Ryu. Find articles by In Sang Hwang. Find articles by Seung Il Jung. Find articles by Kyung Jin Oh. Find articles by Kwangsung Park.

Received Mar 16; Accepted Mar This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Penile growth is under androgenic control. Human chorionic gonadotropin, Micropenis, Testosterone.

Patients A total of 20 male patients with IHH who met the criteria for micropenis were included in this study. Methods 1 Clinical and laboratory assessment Testis volume was assessed by using the Prader orchidometer. Open in a separate window. Increase in serum testosterone after hCG treatment The mean serum testosterone level was significantly increased after hCG treatment.

Increase in penile length after hCG treatment Penile length was measured with the penis flaccid and fully stretched.

The comments are moderated. It usually takes hours until they get approved. What Is A Micropenis? A significant increase in the mean serum testosterone concentrations An increase in testicular volume. The study is very promising, let's hope someone proceeds to a clinical trial so that adults with micropenis can one day enjoy a normal-sized penis with a simple hormonal treatment.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin , penis enlargement , treatments. Anonymous December 22, at 7: Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects.

Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:. After you stop using this medicine, it may still produce some side effects that need attention. During this period of time, check with your doctor immediately if you notice the following side effects:.

For Healthcare Professionals Applies to chorionic gonadotropin hcg: The most commonly reported side effects included injection site pain, headache not otherwise specified NOS , nausea, and application site disorders. Injection site pain up to Injection site bruising, injection site inflammation, injection site reaction, vessel site hemorrhage [ Ref ].

Dizziness , hypesthesia, paresthesia, twitching [ Ref ]. Abdominal discomfort, abdominal pain , acute abdominal pain, ascites , bloating, diarrhea, gastrointestinal symptoms, nausea.

Abdominal enlargement, flatulence , hemoperitoneum [ Ref ]. Large ovarian cysts prone to rupture , mild ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome OHSS , mild to moderate enlargement of ovaries, ovarian cysts, painful breasts, severe OHSS, unwanted ovarian hyperstimulation. Adnexal torsion, albuminuria, cervical lesion, dysuria , ectopic pregnancy , genital herpes, genital moniliasis, leukorrhea, mild to moderate ovarian enlargement, ovarian enlargement, ovarian torsion, postpartum fever, urinary incontinence , urinary tract infection, uterine disorders, vaginal discomfort, vaginal hemorrhage, vaginitis [ Ref ].

Dyspnea , hydrothorax, shortness of breath. Pharyngolaryngeal pain, rhinorrhea, upper respiratory tract infections NOS. Acute pulmonary distress, cough, hiccup, pharyngitis , pulmonary complications, upper respiratory tract infection [ Ref ]. Pruritus [ Ref ].

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